Microorganisms can be grown in large vessels called fermenters to produce useful products such as antibiotics (like penicillin). Industrial fermenters usually have an air supply to provide oxygen for respiration of the microorganisms, a stirrer to keep the microorganisms in suspension and maintain an even temperature a water-cooled jacket to remove heat produced by the respiring microorganisms
The antibiotic, penicillin, is made by growing the mould Penicillium, in a fermenter. The medium contains sugar and other nutrients. The Penicillium only starts to make penicillin after using up most of the nutrients for growth.

Other raw materials used in bioprocess system includes:
- - pH 6.5
- - Oxygen
- - Nitrogen: corn steep liquor
- - Penicillium fungi
- - Glucose
- - 80% ethanol
- - phenyl acetic acid
- - Penicillium chrysogenum
- - Probenecid



With references to :
http://www.dcu.ie/~oshead/BE401/lectures/pres438453849e9b7.pdf